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Deviations from the Real Dinosaur & Biology

The clones, like all of InGen's cloned theropods, had pronated hands. The clones were noticeably larger than the original animal. This can be seen in the skull (notably the lower jaw)[1] and its feet, which were so large that the soles of the feet were as big as a man[2] unlike the originals. On a minor note, cloned T. rex had an indention in the surangular of their lower jaw that is not present in any fossils of the originals.[1]

The clones had fully scaled skin as juveniles and as adults,[2] when it is considered by scientists that Tyrannosaurus was feathered at least at one point in its life or on some portion of its body. The Masrani backdoor gives a possible explanation that this could be due to the Null allele found in the cloned Velociraptor and Gallimimus created from the mutation and manipulation of dinosaur genes as well as the addition of frog, reptile, and bird DNA that causes feathered dinosaurs to have scaled skin.[3] Many of the adult Tyrannosaurs encountered by humans would bear at least one scar that would be found on their head or neck. Two adult males had a single scar on the side of their face.[2][4] The individual known as "Rexy" had several scars on her neck from a cloned Velociraptor referred to as "The Big One".[5]

The clones displayed sexual dimorphism such as the males having a throat wattle and more prominent brows.[6]Every adult Tyrannosaur encountered each had their own unique skin color and pattern. Males tended to have a green skin color and females tended to have a brown color while the juvenile known as Junior was a mix of the two aforementioned colors.[7] Furthermore, males had deeper vocalizations than the females[2][4], though the female Rexy also had deepened vocalizations when she got older.[5]

According to founder and former CEO of InGen John Hammond, the cloned T. rex could run at speeds of 32 mph.[8]

The clones seemed to have had an accelerated growth cycle as the Tyrannosaurus rex Rexy was the size of a 28-year-old when she was only three[9][10] and the only juvenile observed, Junior, was the size of a two-year-old tyrannosaurid yet was still highly dependent on his parents.[2]

Size

As far as size goes, many different lengths and heights are shown in movie related material like posters and websites (see table). These values pendulate around the real-life estimates of the average T. rex. Many fans assumed these different sizes represent the sizes of the individual Tyrannosaurs seen in the films. However, there is no evidence for this connection.

Length Height Source
Jurassic Park related material:
12 m (40 ft) 6 m (20 ft) [11]
12 m (40 ft) 7.5 m (25 ft) [12]
12 m (40 ft) 6 m (20 ft) [13]
12 m (40 ft) 7.6 m (25 ft) [14]
The Lost World related material:
12 m (39 ft) 5.5 m (18 ft) [15]
10-12 m (33-39 ft) 4.3 m (14 ft) [16]
Jurassic Park III related material:
11.10 m (37 ft) 4.35 m (14.5 ft) [17]
11 m (37 ft) 4.5 m (14.5 ft) [18]
12 m (40 ft) [19]
11.3 m (37 ft) 4.4 m (14.4) [20]
Jurassic World related material:
4.6 m (15 ft) [21]
12 m (40 ft) 5 m (16 ft) [22]
12 m (40 ft) [23]
13.4 m (44 ft) [24]
13.4 m (44 ft) 5.1 m (16.8 ft) [25]

Behavior

The clones were known to hunt prey by seeing movement,[8][2][4][5] which is currently unknown in the real Tyrannosaurus and might be an abnormality because the originals had excellent eyesight and sense of smell that aided them in hunting. According to in-universe paleontologist Dr. Alan Grant, the films' equivalent to the real Tyrannosaurus did indeed have motion-based vision,[8] though it is unknown if this was an accepted scientific fact in the film's universe or a theory or hypothesis. Another explanation for the motion based movement was frog DNA as this is stated by Phil Tippett, dinosaur supervisor for the first film[26] and the InGen Field Journal from Jurassic Park: The Game suggests this as well,[27] though it is disputed on whether JP: TG is within the same continuity with the films.

From what has been observed of wild cloned Tyrannosaurus, they were solitary animals.[4] The only time more than one Tyrannosaur was seen together is when they formed families to raise their offspring.[2] There is fossil evidence that the real Tyrannosaurus rex were cannibals and they might have even roamed in packs, though none of these aforementioned behaviors have been observed with the clones. The cloned female Tyrannosaurus were known to be ambush predators.[8][2]

The cloned Tyrannosaurus rex were great parents to their young. They would usually have one offspring at a time who would stay in a nest while the parents would provide food for it for about 2 weeks until the juvenile learned to hunt on its own. If a Tyrannosaurus baby went missing, its parents would go search for it by hearing its cries or by smelling its blood. Even if they had retrieved their juvenile if Tyrannosaur parents smelled their offspring's blood on a potential threat they would confront it.[2]

Intelligence

The cloned Tyrannosaurus created by InGen reflect this level of intelligence in several instances. Rexy in particular has shown a good deal of intelligence during both the Isla Nublar incidents in both 1993 and 2015. In the former, she tested the electrical fences after the power outage, seemingly aware of the lack of power before attempting to escape.[8] During the incident in 2015, Rexy showed enough intelligence not to attack Blue during and after their fight with the Indominus, aware of key role the Velociraptor played in distracting the hybrid as it attempted to kill her.[5]

Both the male and female Tyrannosaurus during the Isla Sorna Incident in 1997 also showed a high degree of intelligence, seen in their efforts to protect their infant from the humans, even going so far as to push a trailer over a cliff and hunt in a familial pack.[2]

Story

Non-clones

In the films, the non-cloned Tyrannosaurus rex apparently had motion-based vision. Whether this is a confirmed fact, a theory, or a hypothesis is unknown, but Dr. Alan Grant believed this to be true.[8]

Creation

Tyrannosaurus rex was created by InGen scientists in their compound on Isla Sorna[2][4] around 1990 or before.[9]

There has only been one Tyrannosaurus rex known to have been transported to Isla Nublar to live in Jurassic Park: an individual known as Rexy. She first arrived on the island in 1990 and lived in the Tyrannosaur Paddock of Jurassic Park.[8]According to JurassicWorld.com, the paddock was originally designed to contain both an adult and a juvenile,[28] though it is unknown if a juvenile was ever transported to live there.

Isla Nublar Incident (1993)

see Rexy

The Tyrannosaurus rex Rexy was supposed to have been seen by InGen's endorsement team on their tour of Jurassic Park. However, despite attempts by Ray Arnold to lure her out of her paddock with a live goat, Rexy did not reveal herself to the visitors.[8]

When Dennis Nedry disabled most of Jurassic Park'security with Whte rbt.obj, Rexy was one of the dinosaurs that were able to roam the island freely. One of the embryos Nedry stole from the Cold Storage Room was Tyrannosaurus.[8]

After she ate the goat that was left for her, she attacked the endorsement team who were stranded near her paddock because of Whte rbt.obj disabling the power and even killed one of their members, Donald Gennaro. After pushing the tour vehicle of Lex and Tim Murphy off a cliff with Tim still inside the vehicle and Dr. Grant and Lex at the front of the car, she attacked Dr. Ellie Sattler and Robert Muldoon who searching for the survivors.[8]

In the morning, Rexy arrived in the Gallimimus Enclosure and killed an individual that lived there. Her next destination was the Visitor Center where inside she killed The Big One, a violent Velociraptor, and her remaining subordinate.[8] This battle gave her scars on her neck,[8] which remained for the rest of her life.[5]

After the Isla Nublar Incident of 1993 Rexy became wild on Isla Nublar, probably living off surviving dinosaurs as a source of food and as a way to counter the Lysine contingency. Rexy remained this way for over a decade.

Wild on Isla Sorna

The Tyrannosaurus rex on Isla Nublar became wild after Hurricane Clarissa struck the island. They were freed by either breaking out of their cages or by the workers on the island before they fled. To counter the Lysine contingency, T. rex and the other carnivorous dinosaurs ate herbivores who in turn ate lysine rich plants as one of their sources of lysine.[2]

Tyrannosaurus rex had varying levels of success on Isla Sorna. In the island's south, they were the apex predator of the region,[2] but in the north they were undermined by Spinosaurus.[4]

Isla Sorna Incident (1997) & San Diego Incident

see Tyrannosaur Buck, Infant T. rex, Tyrannosaur Doe

A Tyrannosaurus rex family was involved in both the Isla Sorna Incident of 1997 and the following San Diego Incident. Their involvement began when the son was taken from the parents by InGen Hunters Roland Tembo and his hunting partner Ajay Sidhu so they could use him as bait to lure the father because Roland wanted to hunt a male Tyrannosaurus.[2] While the infant called for his parents to rescue, Peter Ludlow accidently broke his leg while drunk when he was startled by the sound of an animal moving through the undergrowth.[29]

After the Gatherers freed the dinosaurs captured by the InGen Hunters, one of them named Nick Van Owen discovered the infant T. rex and his broken leg. He decided to take him back to his team's mobile labortory, where he and Dr. Sarah Harding fixed the juvenile's leg. However, his parents arrived after first aid was applied to the juvenile and cornered the RV. Dr. Sarah Harding realized that the two Tyrannosaurs weren't exhibiting hunting behavior so she convinced her fellow Gatherers to hand the young T. rex to his parents.[2]

The Tyrannosaurus parents put their child in a safe place, but they soon returned to the mobile lab to push it over a cliff. However, Eddie Carr saved his fellow Gatherers from falling with the RV, but soon afterward the Tyrannosaurus parents split him in half as he was trying to escape them. Even though the family was reunited, the Tyrannosaur parents traveled to the new camp of the Gatherers and the Hunters because the smelled the blood their son on Dr. Sarah Harding's shirt. InGen Hunter Carter alerted his group upon seeing the Tyrannosaur Buck investigating the tent of Dr. Harding and Kelly Malcolm.[2]

While the Hunters fled the Doe followed, killing many of them in the process. As the Tyrannosaur Buck continued his search, he became tranquilized by Roland Tembo. After the Tyrannosaur Doe's attack, Peter Ludlow ordered the remaining InGen Hunters to confiscate the Tyrannosaur Buck and recapture the juvenile T. rex for Jurassic Park: San Diego. But his plan went astray when the Tyrannosaur Buck escaped confinement upon reaching San Diego, California and went rampaging throughout the city, killing several civilians.[2]

To stop the chaos, gatherers Sarah Harding and Ian Malcolm broke into Jurassic Park: San Diego to steal the baby Tyrannosaur so they use him to lure his father back into the docks. The plan worked, but Peter Ludlow was killed by the Tyrannosaurs when he tried to recapture the juvenile. The Tyrannosaur Buck's rampage ended when Dr. Harding tranquilized him before the San Diego police could shoot him. Both Tyrannosaurus father and son were reunited once more with the female when they were transported back to Isla Sorna.[2]

Isla Sorna Incident (2001)

During his time marooned on Isla Sorna, Eric Kirby collected T. rex urine that he used to detour small carnivorous dinosaurs such as Compsognathus though he also learned that it attracted Spinosaurus as well.[4]

While a male was eating a carcass, he encountered a group of humans consisting of Dr. Alan Grant, Udesky, Billy Brennan, and Paul and Amanda Kirby. They tried to avoid him by standing still, but the Tyrannosaurus rex noticed them and began to chase them. His chase of the humans ended quickly when he encountered a Spinosaurus, who was the first to pursue the humans. The two large theropods let out a loud roar as they initiated a fight. Unknown to the male, he nearly stepped on Dr. Alan Grant who was under him when getting into a stance just before the first strike in the conflict was made.[4]

The male Tyrannosaurus was the first to attack in the dual, biting down on the neck of the Spinosaurus and bringing it down to the forest floor. The Spinosaurus regained balance, however, and began to snap at his flanks, which he returned the favor. After the Spinosaurus swiped at him, the male decided to ram into his opponent head first. This turned out to have been a bad move for the Tyrannosaurus rex, as the Spinosaur was barely phased from the attack and then proceeded to bite down on his neck. As the male roared in agony, the Spinosaur, with support from its arms, proceeded to snap his neck. The Tyrannosaurus rex's body collapsed to the ground, nearly crushing Dr. Alan Grant while he was escaping. [4]

The Spinosaurus then claimed the corpse of its fallen foe triumphantly.[4]

Jurassic World

see Rexy

Rexy who had been wild on Isla Nublar for over a decade was captured sometime during Jurassic World's construction or years of operation to live as an attraction for the park, in particular, the T. rex Kingdom attraction.[30]

Though Rexy was the only Tyrannosaurus known to live in the park, there was a Cold Storage room for Tyrannosaurus present in the Hammond Creation Lab in the mid-2010s.[31]

Isla Nublar Incident (2015)

see Rexy

The base genome of the Indominus rex, the hybrid that caused the incident, was Tyrannosaurus rex.[5]

As the remaining members of the Jurassic World Velociraptor Pack fought the Indominus in Jurassic World's Main Street, the T. rex known as Rexy as released by Lowery Cruthers and lured to the fight by Claire Dearing per suggestion from her nephew, Gray Mitchell. With help from the Velociraptor Blue, the Indominus was thrown to the side of the Jurassic World Lagoon where the Mosasaurus residing there leaped out of the water and killed the hybrid.[5]

Jurassic Park: The Game

see Rexy

The Tyrannosaurus seen throughout the original film appeared in Telltale's Jurassic Park: The Game as one of the main antagonists. In the InGen Field Guide included in the Jurassic Park: The Game Deluxe Edition set the size of the T. rex is given as being 40 ft from the snout to the tip of the tail, a 13 ft height at the hips, and weighing 7 tons.[32]

It is first seen when it faces off against Lady Margaret, the alpha Triceratops, after her encounter with Malcolm, Muldoon, and Ellie in the first film. The conflict almost kills Gerry Harding, his daughter Jess, who had come to visit the island earlier, and a very ill Nima Cruz, who was unconscious at the time. The two of them narrowly escape with their lives and wait out the night in the Triceratops Maintenance Building as the two titans clash.[33]

File:T-Rex vs Trike JP Telltale.jpg

The T. rex then returns to Jurassic Park's Visitor Center after the killing the raptors at the end of the first film.[34] After a harrowing climax, Dr. Harding and Jess make it outside, managing to hit the Tyrannosaurus rex with a few tranquilizer darts, but this fails to stop the T. rex. They finally distract the T. rex when Gerry tells Dr. Sorkin to start up the tour vehicle waiting for them, which distracts Rexy.[35]

Rexy appears again in the clearing where Yoder, Oscar Morales and Nima crashed the helicopter chasing a Parasaurolophus. When the T. rex unintentionally throws scrap metal at the tree Yoder was in, he fall to the ground and the T. rex decides to pursue Nima and Yoder.[36] The two run to the Parasaurolophus Paddock where the T. rex kills a loitering Velociraptor, gaining access to another Parasaurolophus its pack had already killed.[37] However, after escaping, Yoder goes back to the paddock to retrieve the Barbosal can he had lost and manages to escape before Rexy kills him.[38]

She makes her final appearance by the dock in the final climax of the game, eating Billy Yoder. It also eats Nima Cruz if the player chooses the ending to rescue the embryos. The climax culminates to the T. rex chasing Dr. Harding across the cargo bay before he finally makes it onto the boat, with Jess and with or without Nima. If the player chooses the opposite ending to rescue Jess, Rexy steps on the Barbasol can, destroying the embryos.[39]

Novels

Deviations from the Real Dinosaur & Biology

Like all the cloned theropods, the cloned Tyrannosaurus had pronated hands. These traits were most likely implemented by InGen on purpose, as at the time T. rex had been cloned the study disproving pronated hands had not been published.

Version 4.1

At Version 4.1[40][41][42] and from the age of two and into adulthood, the clones had fully scaled skin. As adults, the skin was very sensitive in this version of Tyrannosaurus and it could sunburn easily, causing them to seek shade from the sunlight. The skin color of the adults was described as being a mottled reddish brown.[43] The adults were known to be semi-aquatic and swam like a crocodile[44] and had very strong and flexible tongue akin to an elephant's trunk.[45]

Wild

The Tyrannosaurus that were wild on Isla Sorna were similar to the Version 4.1 Tyrannosaurus, but was capable of somehow changing sex in the absence of rana.

Though the adults had brown scaled skin, the infants had red Down feathers with a ring of these feathers in pale white around their necks.[46]

There was sexual dimorphism among the clones. One of the most visible traits between the sexes was that females had longer tails than the males.This seems to have been done intentionally by InGen scientists as at the time of the cloning process there was a belief that there was sexual dimorphism in the real T. rex.[46] The Isla Sorna map featured on the first pages of the novel The Lost World give the length of the Tyrannosaurus as 42 ft (12.8 meters), but it is unknown was sex this represents.

The clones showed great parental care for their young. Tyrannosaurs would make pair bonds after mating and would constantly tend to their nests.[46] The only known nest made by the cloned T. rex was a mud mound[46][47] that was nearly 4 feet high[46] and the female who owned this nest laid a total of 6 eggs.[48]

Story

Non-clones

Paleontologist Dr. John Roxton once created casts of the brain case of Tyrannosaurus and concluded it was similar to amphibians and thus concluded that the eyesight of Tyrannosaurus was based on movement.[49] Several paleontologists believed his theory, including George Baselton.[47] However, some, like Dr. Richard Levine did not believe his theory. Levine argued that because the common defense mechanism in prey animals is to stand still and a predator has to be able to see them, it would be impossible for an animal such as T. rex to have motion-based vision.[49]

Another theory about Tyrannosaurus vision that was proposed by Alan Grant was that T. rex could become confused in a rain storm because it could not adapt to wet climates. Dr. Levine did not believe this theory either.[49] Dr. Grant also believed that Tyrannosaurus were scavengers rather than hunters.[50]

Creation

Tyrannosaurus was created in a labortoy located in a village owned by InGen on Isla Sorna for Jurassic Park.[51]

Two Version 4.1[40][41][42]Tyrannosaurus were shipped to Isla Nublar as attractions for Jurassic Park: a two year old[43] juvenile and an adult (whom Jurassic Park game warden Robert Muldoon later dubbed "Rexy" during the InGen Incident[52][45]) . While living in the enclosure, the juvenile kept her distance from the adult[40] and learned to catch fish at the lagoon of the enclosure.[43] Since the Sauropod Paddock was nearby, the adult would stare at the Apatosaurus nearby and would wiggle her forearms in frustration.[43] There was a problem in the paddock as tyrannosaurs would sometimes get sick from something in the water of the lagoon.[53]

InGen Incident

see Rexy, Juvenile Tyrannosaur

After the power cut, the creatures broke free of their enclosure. The juvenile escaped first and the adult escaped second, then proceed to attack the cars. The adult didn't kill anyone, although it nearly killed Dr. Malcolm and almost ate Tim.[54] After the attack, the juvenile later killed Ed Regis.[55]

The next day, the adult hunts and kills a Hadrosaurus,[56] then falls asleep near the Raft Storage Building with her kill. Dr. Grant and the children later find it sleeping and managed to acquire a raft that they used to go down a river, but when Lex starts to cough uncontrollably it woke up and took to the water, swimming after them, though she abandoned the pursuit when she sees the juvenile T. rex with dead Apatosaurus.[44]

After an unsuccessfully chasing the juvenile, the adult found herself in the jungles of the Jungle River Cruise. While there, she made a failed attempt at attack Dr. Grant and the kids in their raft before disturbing a pair of Dilophosaurus in courtship.[57] Afterward, she is found by Muldoon and Donald Gennaro. Muldoon shoots it with a very large tranquilizer dart, which causes the Tyrannosaurus rex to pass out while it was trying to eat Tim behind a waterfall.[45] It is possible, although not directly mentioned, that the adult Tyrannosaurus drowned as she is never retrieved by the staff.[58]

Wild on Isla Sorna

Though the Tyrannosaurus on Isla Nublar were destroyed, there were still surviving individuals on the neighboring island Isla Sorna. From 1988-1989, after six weeks of goats milk, all the carnivores being raised, including Tyrannosaurus, were fed a protein from ground up sheep.[59] Eventually, this allowed for the spread of the prion known as "DX" among the cloned dinosaurs.[60] To combat this, they outfitted the dinosaurs, including Tyrannosaurus, with Grumbach field tags and released them into the wild, tracking them through a radio network.[61]

At some point after November 1989 or later,[62] InGen personal abandoned the island and the work they were doing, the most likely cause being the company's bankruptcy. By 1995, there were two adult T. rex on the island, both male and female respectively, and had a nest[46] located south of the island's Village.[63] It is unknown how the male existed as Tyrannosaurus rex was not among the six dinosaurs with amphibian DNA[64] and the cloned dinosaurs were irradiated to destroy gonadal tissue.[65]

1995 Isla Sorna Expedition

At the time of the expedition, two eggs in the nest of the Tyrannosaurus couple had hatched.[46]

While the expedition team lead by Dr. Ian Malcolm was exploring the village's manufacturing plant, the male Tyrannosaurus entered the area. Having been alerted by Arby Benton over the radio of their Ford Explorer and seeing the approaching T. rex on the car's dashboard, the men stayed tensely in the car. During the male's examination, he scent marked the car before returning to his nest.[66]

As the male Tyrannosaurus traveled to the nest, Dr. Richard Levine spotted the carnivore and proceeded to follow him via bicycle.[66] Upon reaching the nest, Dr. Levine climbed up a tree where he observed the parental behavior of the large carnivores.[46] Arby saw Levine when he was following the T. rex on the Site B Network and asked Dr. Jack "Doc" Thorne if he had seen Levine, which Throne had not.[66] Since the purpose of the expedition team's arrival was to find Dr. Levine[67] Throne asked Arby how and where he had seen Levine. After receiving Richard's coordinates, Throne took the motorcycle on the Explorer and followed the male Tyrannosaurus to the T. rex nest.[66] When Jack found Levine, Levine accidentally fell from the tree he was in. His fall made too much noise which alerted the tyrannosaur parents. One of them chased the two men our of their nest and briefly pursued them when they were on Throne's motorcycle until they out of range of the nesting ground.[46]

Later, the team of Biosyn agents lead by Dr. Lewis Dodgson tried to steal the eggs of Tyrannosaurus.[47] The attempt fails, resulting in George Baselton being eaten,[68] Howard King breaking the leg of one of the babies,[69] and their modified jeep being pushed stuck in thick undergrowth.King and Dodgson were both rendered unconscious from the raid.[68]

Afterward, Ian Malcolm, Sarah Harding, Eddie Carr, and Jack Throne arrived at the nest while the parents were gone.[69] The team had become aware of BioSyn's presence on the island when they saw their modified jeep going to the Tyrannosaurus territory[70] and Arby and Kelly Curtis witnessed BioSyn's raid from the monitor inside the trailer while the adults driving to that location got reports over the radio from the two.[47][68][49]

As they prepared to leave due to the parents soon returning to their nest, Eddie asked what would be done about the baby dinosaur with the broken leg He was commanded by both Harding and Malcolm to kill it, as its broken leg would kill it regardless.[69] However, Eddie, believing that the juvenile could easily be healed and returned back to its nest, instead secretly injected it with morphine[71] and drove back to the trailer with the tyrannosaur.[72] Thorne, Malcolm, and Levine believed Eddie's actions to be wrong, but Dr. Harding chose to heal the young T. rex anyway and the team puts a temporary cast on its broken leg.[71]

While Malcolm and Harding were alone together trying to nurse the baby back to help the parents arrived and began to kick the trailer down a cliff even after the people inside gave them their baby.[59] However, Throne scared off the Tyrannosaurs using the modified Biosyn jeep that had just been unstuck and that Thorne also found.[73]

The final encounter with humans the Tyrannosaurs had was when the father approached Harding's Explorer just after Dodgson tried to get inside the vehicle. Dodgson hid underneath the vehicle with her, but she pushed him to the side where he was then snatched by the T. rex.[74] Dodgson was then taken to the nest to eaten by the hatchlings, one of which had just hatched.[75]

The clones as well as the rest of the dinosaurs were doomed to extinction once more in the future due to the spread of the DX prions on Isla Sorna.[60]

Jurassic Park: Adventures

Story

content needed

IDW Comics

Jurassic Park: Redemption

In the comic series Peter Ludlow survived the encounter with the young Tyrannosaurus Junior, albeit gaining horrific facial scarring and becoming disable from the encounter.[76]

Jurassic Park: Devils in the Desert

A flashback of the Buck's rampage through San Deigo appears in the second issue.[77]

Jurassic Park Dangerous Games

content needed

Video games

Tyrannosaurus has appeared in all Jurassic Park games. Listed below is a list of notable games featuring the dinosaur.

Jurassic Park (arcade game)

Tyrannosaurus is featured in the arcade version of Jurassic Park. In the game, the player encounters the T. rex three times within the game and is a boss at all times. In Area one, the Tyrannosaurus is the first dinosaur you encounter and is chasing you while you have to shoot at her head. At the end of Act two you encounter it again and you must defeat it the same way as the first time by shooting at its head, this time, however, the rex is harder to kill and has a health bar. At the end of the game in Act four you encounter the T. rex along with a second and you must defeat them at the same time by shooting at their heads, just like the previous time both of them also have health bars.

The Lost World: Jurassic Park (arcade game)

Tyrannosaurus appears in the arcade adaptation of The Lost World: Jurassic Park; both the male and the female T. rex's from the film served as the game's bosses, the female as the first boss in Stage 1 and the male as the last boss in Stage 5 after the female. The baby Tyrannosaurus is featured in Stages 4 and 5.

Jurassic Park: Chaos Island

Tyrannosaurus appears in Jurassic Park: Chaos Island, as one of the strongest dinosaurs and the hardest to kill. The baby T. rex is also featured in two of the missions. In the bonus mission taking place during the San Diego incident, the player plays as the Tyrannosaurus rex; who oddly in the game is female, instead of male. The rex in the game resembles the Bull T. rex from The Lost World Series 1 toyline.

The Lost World: Jurassic Park (video game)

Tyrannosaurus is featured in the console adaptation of the The Lost World: Jurassic Park film. It serves as both a playable character and the final boss of the game.

Warpath: Jurassic Park

Tyrannosaurus is featured in the video game Warpath: Jurassic Park. Its attack patterns were the same as Acrocanthosaurus and Cryolophosaurus and has 3 colors: blue, green, and blue with orange stripes. Its arena was Freighter Deck.

Jurassic Park: Trespasser

In Jurassic Park: Trespasser, Tyrannosaurus is an enemy, being the most powerful adversary in the game. It is invincible, unless being killed by the Toxic Rifle, or other hidden weapons. It is said that InGen made seven T. rex, meaning seven kings of the prehistoric world, each of which would be faced at one point during the course of the game. The colors of some of the Tyrannosaurus rex were based on The Lost World: Jurassic Park. It is first seen in the Industrial Jungle and last seen in The Ascent's first part.

The Tyrannosaurus in Ascent 1 is called the "Alpha Tyrannosaurus" according to ingame files. The Alpha Tyrannosaurus also makes an appearance in the Trespasser Demo as well. In addition, another Tyrannosaurus skin didn't make the cut. This Tyrannosaurus was a brighter green than the normal green T. rex. It is unknown why this green Tyrannosaurus was scrapped, but it might have had to do with the fact that the skin was too high in quality.

Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis

see Tyrannosaurus rex/Operation Genesis

Tyrannosaurus is one of the dinosaurs in the game Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis. It is a 5-star carnivore, and along with Spinosaurus, it is the most powerful carnivore in the game. It will devour guests, swallowing the guest whole after first shaking them around violently, making it mirror the death of Gennaro in the first film. The T. rex in the game is green, reflecting the appearance of the specimen seen in Jurassic Park III, though a number of user-created reskins depicting the animal as it appeared in other films can be found on the internet. The Tyrannosaurus' sociability among others of its kind is usually isolated, when another Rex encounters another they engage in combat against one another for territorial rights which eventually leads to death. It is seldom seen where both dinosaurs coexist with one another.

Tyrannosaurus is feared by most of the herbivores and small carnivores in the game. It does not scare the Brachiosaurus because it is too big to be attacked. The Spinosaurus can eliminate the predator with a Jurassic Park III-style snap to the neck, though the T. rex can also kill the Spinosaur using a similar method, crushing its neck with its powerful jaws.

Template:-

Jurassic Park: Builder

File:Level 40 Tyrannosaurus.png

see Tyrannosaurus rex/Builder

Tyrannosaurus rex is one of the available dinosaurs in the simulation game Jurassic Park: Builder. Though it requires dino-dollars purchase.

Jurassic World: The Game

see Tyrannosaurus rex/JW: TG

File:T-RexJW.jpg

Tyrannosaurus rex can be created in the mobile game Jurassic World: The Game. It starts with the brown/grey color from the first film. As it levels up its colors get brighter and more red.

Jurassic Park (2015 Arcade)

File:Jurassic park 2015 tyrannosaurus rex.jpg
Tyrannosaurus rex is one of the three dinosaurs the players need to rescue when a volcanic eruption throws the island into chaos.

LEGO Jurassic World

see Tyrannosaurus rex/LEGO

The Tyrannosaurus is one of the playable dinosaurs in LEGO Jurassic World. As the game is based on all four films, the Tyrannosaurus rex appears at several points in the game. Due to the humorous nature of the game, the Tyrannosaurs as most of the Dinosaurs in the game are depicted with human-like intelligence, doing things like eating hamburgers wearing a bib and drinking coffee. Also though the Tyrannosaurs in the game still eat people, they usually end up spitting them out alive later on such as Rexy spiting out Donald Gennaro after defeating The Big One. Another example is the captured Tyrannosaur Buck spitting out Robert Burke and the other InGen Hunters. Also the Infant T. rex does not eat Peter Ludlow, instead Ludlow is taken back to Isla Sorna where he becomes part of the infant's mobile. When Rexy ate Donald Gennaro, she opened her mouth again, and he was using the toilet cleaner to supposedly "clean" Rexy's teeth!

Both the Infant T. rex and adult T. rex are playable, unlocked once the Tyrannosaurus' Amber Brick is obtained in the Control Room level, by breaking the LEGO glass on a Vending Machine found in the level with Lex Murphy's Scream ability. Once the Amber Brick is obtained the Infant and Adult Tyrannosaurus are unlocked for Free Play. However only the Infant can be selected from the character selection menu, while the Adult can only be summoned via Dino Spawners capable of spawning large dinosaurs, such as the one in the Tyrannosaur Paddock and other large open areas. Rexy can also be released into the Tyrannosaur Enclosure located in Jurassic World via shooting an electric switch using an Electric rifle. The playable Adult Tyrannosaur has two abilities, Roar and Dino Strength. Its Roar ability allows it to break Amber LEGO objects and destructible objects by roaring. Dino Strength allows it to break special Dino strength objects. The Infant T. rex however has no special abilities.

During certain points in the story, Tyrannosaurs can be controlled to fight enemy dinosaurs such as The Big One, Spinosaurus, and Indominus rex which act as boss battles. Also an adult Tyrannosaurus Skeleton can be unlocked as a playable character via collecting all 10 Minikits in Jurassic Park's Visitor Center chapter (Kitchen Escape, Control Room, and Main Hall). This will also unlock the Tyrannosaur hologram in Jurassic World's Innovation Center. The playable T. rex Skeleton uses the same animation, vocal effects, and abilities as the standard T. rex.

Like all the Dinosaurs in the game, the player can customize their own Tyrannosaurus. Through customization the Tyrannosaurus head option can be added to other dinosaurs to grant them the ability to roar like a Tyrannosaurus.

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Behind the scenes

Jurassic Park

Design

Paleontologist Gregory S. Paul did preliminary studies on the Tyrannosaurus for the film[78] while paleontologist Dr. Robert Bakker and paleoartist Mark Hallet were consulted for the design of the T. rex, the latter whom even created concept art of the films' T. rex.[citation needed] The T. rex was given front facing eyes by director Steven Spielberg because he felt it looked better when she was running toward the camera.[79]

Concepts of scenes featuring the T. rex were created by several different artists, including Craig Mullins[80] and David Negron.[81] In concept art by Tom Cranham of an adaptation of the raft sequence in the novel chapter "Tyrannosaur"[82] which was scrapped during David Koepp's rewrites of the script[83] the Tyrannosaurus was a dark green color instead of a brown color like that seen in the film.

Mark "Crash" McCreery created the design of the T. rex that was used in the film. His first drawing was of the T. rex running against a plain white background as a motion study. His second was of the T. rex in a jungle setting lifting its left leg high in an attack stance reminiscent of a bird of prey.[84] These concepts were noticeably more slender than the design seen in the film and had sharp talons on the end of its feet. The next concept he created showcased a bulkier design yet lacked several of the characteristics found in the film's T. rex, such as lacking the oversized lower jaw as well as the ridges on the nasal bone.[85] In 1991, the following year, McCreery created another design for the T. rex closer in appearance to that seen on screen.[86] There is another concept known to have been created, though it's artist and date is unknown,[87] though its design resembles the designs that McCreery had made. This concept was used to create the armature for the 1/5 scale maquette.[88]

The maquettes that were subsequently made finalized (or at least were even further closer) the anatomy of the film's T. rex.

Interesting, the design that "Crash" McCreery first created would later be colored and used in promotional material for Jurassic Park.

Portrayal

Transition to CGI

Originally, all wide shots of the dinosaurs were to be portrayed by go motion animation created by Phil Tippit. Am animatic was even created of the breakout sequence featuring the go motion T. rex. Tippit and his team sent Spielberg tests of Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor. Though a motion blur was added to the make the stop motion dinosaurs more realistic, Speilberg felt that the movements of the dinosaurs were still jerky. Dennis Muren then suggested to Speilberg that Industrial Light and Magic create computer generated full-sized dinosaurs. Interested, Speilberg requested a test be made featuring CGI dinosaurs.[89]

After ILM created a herd of Gallimimus skeletons running,[89] Steve 'Spaz' Williams with support and assistance from Mark AZ Dippe, his friend and confidant, created a running Tyrannosaurus skeleton during off-hours and in-between assignments at ILM. The reference he used for the skeleton came from page 341 of Gregory S. Paul's 1988 book Predatory Dinosaurs of the World.[90]

Speilberg was not fully convinced to use CGI for the dinosaurs until ILM made more tests featuring a fully fleshed T. rex and said T. rex chasing a herd of fully fleshed Gallimimus.[89] This skin was rendered by Stefan Fangmeier.[91] Though the dinosaurs were to be now CGI in the film, the stop motion animatics and tests would be used as a reference for the animatronic dinosaurs.[92]

Animatronics

A full-sized Tyrannosaurus animatronic was created by Stan Winston Studio for the filming of the dinosaur's breakout. Taking two years to make, the animatronic was the first animatronic to be mounted on a motion simulator to achieve gross body movements and at the time was the largest animatronic the studio ever produced[93] only being surpassed by the Spinosaurus animatronic created for Jurassic Park III.[94] A 1/5 scale telemetry device shaped like the dinosaur was used to provide the movements of its head and tail.[92] The animatronic was filmed on set at Universal Stage 16.[95] Another animatronic was also used as well that consisted of legs with a closeup head and neck assembly.[96] There were troubles while filming the scene as both the animatronics began to shiver due to their latex skin absorbing the rain,[92] requiring the crew to dry the animatronics down after every shot.[97]

Overall, shooting of the scene was finished four days ahead of schedule.[98]

Change of Ending

In the original endings for Jurassic Park, one raptor was to be crushed by one of the falling skeletons while the other would either be moved and crushed to the jaws of the T. rex skeleton by Dr. Grant using a crane or by Hammond shooting the raptor.[99][100][101] Rexy was even scripted to die like her novel counterpart at one point.[102] These endings and her death were scrapped from the film because Spielberg believed the T. rex to be the star of the film alongside the smaller Velociraptor.[100]

Finishing Touches

Phil Tippit worked with ILM in post production to create the dinosaur input device or DID for short; an armature like that seen in go motion models that could be manipulated by Tippit and his team of stop-motion animators. One such DID was designed for the T. rex.[103] The T. rex DID was only used for the road attack sequence while ILM created the rest of the shots featuring T. rex as Tippit's team and ILM were originally going to work together until it was decided that both would be split into two teams.[104]

The digital model for the T. rex received several changes from Speilberg that differed from the animatronic, these changes being a different arm length, larger and stockier feet, and a more streamlined jaw as well as adjustements to her eyes.[79]

Sounds

The deep elements of the female roars were created from crocodiles and lions.[92] The iconic high-frequency "scream" originates from a baby elephant that Gary Rydstrom and his team recorded. It was only recorded once creating this sound and the team tried to get the elephant to create the sound again, but it refused to do so. Because of this, Rydstrom used the same elephant sound for each take.[105] The sound of Rexy as it kills the Gallimimus was simply Rydstrom's dog, a Jack Russell Terrier named "Buster",[106] playing with a rope toy.[89] The footsteps of the T. rex were of redwood trees being cut down and falling to the ground.[92]

The Lost World: Jurassic Park

Design

For the The Lost World: Jurassic Park, a female, male, and juvenile Tyrannosaurus were set to appear in the film.

In the digital storyboards by Stefan Dechant the male was depicted as either yellow and gray or as the same color as the female.[107] John Rosengrant later devised the green color scheme for the male.[108] One such concept by Rosengrant was a colored version of the 1991 T. rex concept art for the first film[109] that would be widely used in promotional material for the film. Even though the Buck was given a different skin color to differentiate it from the female, Stan Winston Studio was concerned that this would be difficult to see in low-light conditions. So Shane Mahan began to manipulate images of the T. rex from the first film, creating a series of eight head designs that he sent to Speilberg. The design chosen by Speilberg featured larger brows, a scarred face, and a neck wattle.[6]

Joey Orosco created the concept art for the juvenile,[110] though another design of the juvenile is known to have existed and was used in promotional material. The juvenile went through many changes in his color scheme, such as one of his maquettes depicting him as brown,[111] another maquette depicting him as bright green,[112] and one paint scheme of his animatronic depicting him as a duller green.[113] However, evidence in the film and promotional photos of the animatronic suggest that Junior is actually a mix of brown and green.[114]

The female also received a new skin color as well, her skin being lighter than the previous female that appeared in the first film.[7]

Portrayal

Animatronics

For close-up shots in the film, two animatronics were used to primarily to depict the tyrannosaur parents using the armatures of the full-body animatronic and insert-head of the first T. rex, the female in particularly using the insert-head armature. Unlike the first full-sized T. rex animatronic, the animatronics for the parents was from head to mid-torso with arms and were mounted on rail powered dolly carts.[115] This was done because Stan Winston Studio discovered there no need to make a full sized animatronic like in Jurassic Park as the audience only the head and half the body could be seen. Furthermore, the carts provided more mobility and freedom when compared to the motion platform.[116] The most notable usages of the animatronics were when the parents approach the trailer and when they attack Eddie Carr.[117]

Two animatronics were used to portray the juvenile. One was a mixture of hydraulics and cables used when he was laying on his side while the other was remote controlled and used when someone was carrying him.[117]

From Pteranodons to San Deigo

In one of the original endings for The Lost World: Jurassic Park, Pteranodon or Geosterbergia (then classified as a species of Pteranodon) were to attack the rescue helicopter at the end of the film.[118] While at his vacation home in the Hamptons for the Fourth of July, director Steven Spielberg suddenly saw an image in his mind of a boy looking out of his bedroom to seen a T. rex drinking from the family swimming pool. Prompted by the image he saw, Spielberg changed the ending to what is seen in the completed film[119] and included the image he saw as the scene where the Buck approaches the house of young Benjamin and his family.

In one concept of the T. rex being transported, it appears the mother was to be captured instead of the father as this T. rex is brown instead if green.[120]

Sounds

For the male, pigs and "weird Costa Rican mammals", mammals that Gary Rydstrom and his team recorded but never knew what their identities were, had a similar screech like the baby elephant and were used in place of the latter. The juvenile's vocalizations were of a baby camel crying for its mother.[118] The original T. rex roars were also reused for the female.

Jurassic Park III

The Replacement

In early logo designs for the film, Tyrannosaurus was to be featured like in the previous two films. Many of the logos had the same T. rex design used in the logos for the previous films, but there were different designs exhibited in the prelimnary logos such as the T. rex with a more widened mouth,[121] the T. rex more upright and looking striaght ahead,[122] and a full skeleton of T. rex roaring.[123]

For Jurassic Park III, the filmmakers wanted to have another dinosaur to replace Tyrannosaurus from the previous two films[124] and searched through many candidates in the process.[125] Eventually Spinosaurus was chosen after Paleontologist Jack Horner suggested Spinosaurus to the filmmakers as a replacement[126] and from the discovery of a Spinosaur skull during the pre-production of the film.[94]

The Battle

Director Joe Johnston created the famous Spino vs T. rex as an homage to Ray Harryhausen's go motion dinosaurs and wanted to recreate a modern version of those fights.[127] Several aspects of the fight were changed over the course of production. In one piece of concept art of the fight several Compsognathus are seen scurrying beneth the feet of the two giant carnivores in combat that are absent from the film. In one draft of the script the carcass the Tyrannosaurus was eating was a sauropod[128] when the actual prop used in the film is the Parasaurolophus carcass used in The Lost World: Jurassic Park repainted[129] and the carcass itself is left unidentified in the film. In another draft the T. rex physically bleeds from an attack by the Spinosaurus and his blood splatters on Dr. Grant below.

For the battle, the animatronic of the Buck was refurbished.[130] Due to how powerful the mechanical Spinosaur was, the Spino destroyed the Tyrannosaurus with one final blow that broke its neck which in turn caused its head to collapse, releasing hydraulic fluid that John Rosengrant described as being "almost like blood spewing". Rosengrant further described the destruction of the animatronic as "[A] really sad ending to a long night of shooting".[94] Over 20 seconds of footage of the fight, particularly of the animatronics, was cut from the film.[131] Despite this, a shot of the animatronic fight where the Spinosaur slaps the Tyrannosaur was still present in the theatrical trailer.[132]

Was the JPIII Rex a Sub-Adult?

It is popularly believed that this Tyrannosaurus was a sub-adult due to JPIII size charts giving lower size estimates than that of previous size estimates given to Tyrannosaurus rex of the franchise and because it had a brighter coloration than that of the Tyrannosaur Buck, a fully grown adult male.[133] However, there are problems with this theory. Regarding skin color, every tyrannosaur in the films has their own unique skin color and the Tyrannosaur Doe, an adult, has lighter colored skin than Rexy who is an adult as well.[7] As for size, size is inconsistent in the films and their supplementary material. Furthermore, since there has been no official source found or released thus far that confirms that this individual was a subadult its smaller size could be something else instead of just simply being a subadult. It can be noted that size can vary within a species and that there have been individuals of a species that can grow smaller or larger than the average size given for that said species.

Jurassic World

Jurassic World saw the return of the Tyrannosaurus Rexy, the T. rex that appeared in Jurassic Park. Director Colin Trevorrow described the film "This is [the Tyrannosaur's] Unforgiven."[134] The T. rex model was created by Steve Jubinville and the director aimed to make the model look as close as possibile to its design in the first film.[135] The Jurassic World Tyrannosaurus was made to look older by giving her the scars she received from the end of Jurassic Park as well as tightened skin. The T. rex was primarily portrayed with preformance capture technology rather than life-sized animatronics.[134]

Misc

Notes and referecnes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Comparison between Rexy, the Tyrannosaur parents, and the indivtual from Jurassic Park III to skeleton mounts of the real life specimens Sue, AMNH 5027, and Sampson.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 The Lost World: Jurassic Park
  3. RUFFLED FEATHERS
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Jurassic Park III
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Jurassic World
  6. 6.0 6.1 The Making of The Lost World: Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, pp. 45-46
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Comparison between Rexy, (young and old) the Buck, the Doe, Junior (additional shot), and finally, the Jurassic Park III T. rex.
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 Jurassic Park
  9. 9.0 9.1 The Tyrannosaurus Rexy, according to JurassicWorld.com, had lived on Isla Nublar for 25 years, so Tyrannosaurus was probably recreated around 1990 or before. This also means that Rexy would have been 3 years old of age at time of the Isla Nublar Incident of 1993.
  10. Jurassic World director Colin Trevorrow as well as Industrial Light and Magic members Geoff Campbell and Steve Jubinville have stated that the T. rex from Jurassic World was indeed the same individual that appeared in Jurassic Park.
  11. Sizes of the full body T. rex animatronic. Length size from Stan Winston in the documentary The Making of Jurassic Park and height from the Behind the scenes website.
  12. Jurassic Park Sourvenir Magazine, page 38, picture.
  13. Size chart, source unknown.
  14. Jurassic Park Topps trading cards #1, #33
  15. The Lost World: Jurassic Park-DVD/Extra Features/Dinosaur Encyclopedia/Tyrannosaurus
  16. The Lost World: Jurassic Park Educational Resource Guide
  17. Jurassic Park III size chart poster (metric sizes from German version), picture.
  18. Jurassic Park III-DVD/Bonus Materials/Dinosaur Turntables/Tyrannosaurus (imperial sizes only)
  19. Inkworks Jurassic Park III Premium Trading Cards #56
  20. Jurassic Park III Dino Scaler (Polish)
  21. 50px Infographic from the Innovation Center.
  22. JurassicWorld.com/dinosaurs/tyrannosaurus-rex/
  23. RaptorPass 8 Tyrannosaurus rex
  24. Jurassic World: Where Dinosaurs Come to Life, page 14.
  25. The Park is Open
  26. Phil Tippett (2014). Phil Tippett Interview - 5th February 2014, JurassicWorld.org, Feb 5, 2014.
  27. InGen Field Journal, Tyrannosaurus rex
  28. 50px
  29. The Lost World: Jurassic Park Deleted Scene
  30. The article for the T. rex Kingdom on JurassicWorld.com says that the Tyrannosaurus that resides there has lived on Isla Nublar twenty-five years. The only T. rex confirmed to have lived on Isla Nublar is Rexy, so this individual is the same as her. This is further confirmed in a SlashFilm article discussing Jurassic World's performance capture and an interview with director Colin Trevorrow.
  31. Jurassic World - Inside the Hammond Creation Lab (HD)
  32. InGen Field Guide, pp. 20-21
  33. Jurassic Park: The Game: "Triceratops Trouble"
  34. Jurassic Park: The Game: "The Visitor Center"
  35. Jurassic Park: The Game: "T. rex Showdown!"
  36. Jurassic Park: The Game: "Did You Hear That?"
  37. Jurassic Park: The Game: "T. rex Chase"
  38. 'Jurassic Park: The Game: "Get the Canister!"
  39. Jurassic Park: The Game: "Old Friends"
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 Jurassic Park: "Control II"
  41. 41.0 41.1 Jurassic Park: "Control V"
  42. 42.0 42.1 Jurassic Park: "Under Control"
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 Jurassic Park: "Big Rex"
  44. 44.0 44.1 Jurassic Park: "The Park II"
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 Jurassic Park: "Tyrannosaur"
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 46.3 46.4 46.5 46.6 46.7 46.8 The Lost World: "Nest"
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 47.3 The Lost World: "Nest III"
  48. In the chapter "Nest IV" of The Lost World, when Dr. Sarah Harding enters the nest after Biosyn had raided it, she sees two infants and three eggs. Since Howard King had stole one of the eggs, it can be deducted that before the raid the nest contained six eggs by the events of the second novel.
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 The Lost World: "Decision"
  50. The Lost World: "Palo Alto"
  51. The Lost World: "Interior"
  52. Jurassic Park: "Search"
  53. Jurassic Park: "Control III"
  54. Jurassic Park: "The Maon Road"
  55. Jurassic Park: "Lex"
  56. Jurassic Park: "Dawn"
  57. Jurassic Park: "Aviary"
  58. Jurassic Park: "Control IX"
  59. 59.0 59.1 The Lost World: "Trailer III"
  60. 60.0 60.1 The Lost World: "Depature II"
  61. The Lost World: "Labortory"
  62. The available node services on Isla Sorna at the time of the 1995 expedition were last modified around the dates of October-November 1989. Meaning that InGen left the island in November or after.
  63. 50px The Lost World Map
  64. Jurassic Park: "Tim
  65. Jurassic Park: "The Tour"
  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 66.3 The Lost World: "Power"
  67. The Lost World: "Field Systems"
  68. 68.0 68.1 68.2 The Lost World: "Dodgson III"
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 The Lost World: "Nest IV"
  70. The Lost World: "Trailer II"
  71. 71.0 71.1 The Lost World: "Baby"
  72. The Lost World: "Bad News"
  73. The Lost World: "Thorne II"
  74. The Lost World: "Explorer"
  75. The Lost World: "Dodgson IV"
  76. Jurassic Park: Redemption IV
  77. Jurassic Park: Devils in the Desert II
  78. Autobiogrpohy, Part IV gspauldino.com.
  79. 79.0 79.1 zbrushcentral.com - Interview: ILM on Jurassic World (February 3, 2016) Retrieved from http://www.zbrushcentral.com/showthread.php?198673-Interview-ILM-on-Jurassic-World
  80. The Making of Jurassic Park by Jody Duncan, p. 7
  81. The Making of Jurassic Park by Jody Duncan, p. 9
  82. The Making of Jurassic Park by Jody Duncan, p. 10
  83. The Making of Jurassic Park by Jody Duncan, p. 55
  84. The Making of Jurassic Park by Jody Duncan, p. 20
  85. Mark “Crash” McCreery T-Rex concept artwork from Jurassic Park. icollector.com
  86. Mark “Crash” McCreery T-Rex concept artwork from Jurassic Park. icollector.com
  87. Conceptual artwork for T-Rex from Jurassic Park. icollector.com
  88. Duncan, Jody. (December 15, 2012) Jurassic Park's T-Rex - Constructing a Full-Size Dinosaur. Stan Winston School, excerpted from The Winston Effect: The Art and History of Stan Winston Studio.
  89. 89.0 89.1 89.2 89.3 The Making of Jurassic Park documentary
  90. Failes, Ian. (April 4, 2013) Welcome (back) to Jurassic Park. fxgudie.
  91. The Making of Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, p. 137
  92. 92.0 92.1 92.2 92.3 92.4 Return to Jurassic Park: Dawn of a New Era
  93. The Making of Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, p. 104
  94. 94.0 94.1 94.2 Duncan, Jody. (September 29, 2012) Jurassic Park III's T-rex Killer: Spinosaurus. Stan Winston School of Character Arts.
  95. The Making of Jurassic Park by Jody Duncan, p. 106
  96. The Making of Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, p. 107
  97. The Making of Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, p. 111
  98. The Making of Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, p. 112
  99. Return to Jurassic Park: Making Prehistory
  100. 100.0 100.1 The Making of Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, p. 118.
  101. Sharpio, Mark. (1993, August) In the Shadow of the Dinosaurs. Fangoria, 27. Retrieved from http://www.jurassicworlduniverse.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/199308-fangoria-125.pdf
  102. Nerdist Podcast - Episode 772: Kathleen Kennedy (December 16, 2015) Retrieved from http://nerdist.com/nerdist-podcast-kathleen-kennedy/
  103. The Making of Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, p. 132
  104. The Making of Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, p. 133
  105. Sullivan, Becky. (April 13, 2013) Jurassic Bark: How Sound Design Changed Our Imaginations. NPR
  106. Buachann, Kyle. (June 9, 2015) You’ll Never Guess How the Dinosaur Sounds in Jurassic Park Were Made. Vulture.
  107. The Making of The Lost World: Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, p. 26
  108. The Making of The Lost World: Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, p. 47
  109. Mark “Crash” McCreery and John Rosengrant T-Rex artwork from The Lost World: Jurassic Park II icollector.com
  110. The Making of The Lost World: Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, p. 25
  111. Making the 'Lost World'
  112. File:2712801510 a87495402a.jpg
  113. Twitter@SWinstonSchool From concept art to the real thing (with a lot of hard work in between by amazing artists) #30daysofdinosaurs. (June 14, 2016)
  114. 50px50px50px
  115. The Making of The Lost World: Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, p. 46
  116. Duncan, Jody. (May 29, 2012) [The Lost World Jurassic Park 2's T-rexs]. Stan Winston School of Character Arts, excerpted from The Winston Effect: The Art and History of Stan Winston Studio.
  117. 117.0 117.1 Return to Jurassic Park: Finding The Lost World
  118. 118.0 118.1 Return to Jurassic Park: Something Survived (...and came to San Deigo)
  119. The Making of The Lost World: Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, pp. 71-72
  120. 50px
  121. 50px
  122. 50px
  123. 50px
  124. The Making of Jurassic Park III
  125. Return to Jurassic Park: The Third Adventure
  126. jp3.jurassicpark.com
  127. Berry, Mark F. (January 1, 2005) The Dinosaur Filmography, p. 172. (Google Books) Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=KoeACgAAQBAJ&dq=joe+johnston+ray+harryhausen&source=gbs_navlinks_s
  128. Jurassic Park III film script: Scene 40: Int. Plane
  129. This can be proven due to it having exposed ribs like the dead Parasaurolophus made for TLW and has a greenish skin color with a dark green splotch on its back like the repainted latter.
  130. Jody Duncan writes that the T. rex animatronic was simply one of the Tyrannosaurus built for The Lost World: Jurassic Park albeit refurbished. The identity of the TLW Tyrannosaur that was reused for Jurassic Park III is the Buck due to the presence of a scar on the side of its face, neck wattle, more prominent brows, and bearing dark yellow striping on its neck and upper back.
  131. Goldwasser, Dan. (July 9, 2001) Don Davis - Interview. Soundtrack.net.
  132. Youtube - Jurassic Park III (2001) Theatrical Trailer
  133. (Archived October 19, 2015, First posted May 2, 2013) Sub-adult Tyrannosaurus (S/F). Jurassic Park Legacy.
  134. 134.0 134.1 Sciretta, Peter. (April 29, 2015) Original T. rex Returns in ‘Jurassic World,’ This Film “Is Her Unforgiven”. Slashfilm.
  135. Jurassic World stevejubinville.com.

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