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Deviations from the Real Dinosaur & Biology

The cloned Brachiosaurus physically resembled the African sauropod Giraffatitan, which was once classified as a species of Brachiosaurus named Brachiosaurus brancai.[1] Whether the clones were indeed Giraffatitan rather than Brachiosaurus is unknown, given that the Brachiosaurus clones had several divergences from both dinosaurs. The nostrils of the Brachiosaurus clones were located on the top of their heads when it is now thought that the nostrils of sauropods were located near the snout. The legs were bloated in appearance when in actuality the limbs of the real/original Brachiosaurus were rather slender in appearance.[2] The cloned Brachiosaurus was also capable of rearing up on its hind legs[3] when Brachiosaurids would not have able to do this due to the size of their forelimbs.

The Brachiosaurus clones were shown to chew their food [3] contrary to actual sauropods who were not capable of this and relied on swallowing gastroliths or gizzard stones to fill this role, which suggests that the Brachiosaurus clones might not swallow gastroliths. The Brachiosaurs created by InGen were capable of producing many vocalizations.[3]

There were two variants of the Brachiosaurus clones. One had gray coat with a yellow underbelly[3] and another was a beige color mixed with lime green with a red crest.[4] It is possible that the green variant might have been the males of the species.[5] There is also another physically unseen variant depicted in concept art for the Jurassic World attraction Tree Top Grazers in which the Brachiosaurs depicted as a dark brown color with blue streaks on its crest and down its neck.

Behavior

Like with real sauropods, cloned Brachiosaurus were herd animals and would use their vocalizations to communicate with each other.[3] They were also known to coexist peacefully with other herbivores, especially Parasaurolophus.[3][4]

Story

Creation

File:JP-Brachiosaur.jpg

Brachiosaurus was recreated by InGen[3] in their compound[4] on Isla Sorna where the workers on the island served as their caretakers. When the Brachiosaurs reached a certain age, they would be transported to the nearby island Isla Nublar to serve as an attraction for InGen's Jurassic Park.[6] They lived in the Brachiosaurus Enclosure, coexisting with the hadrosaur Parasaurolophus.[3]

Isla Nublar Incident (1993)

The Brachiosaurus was the first dinosaur encountered by the endorsement team hired by InGen to make sure Jurassic Park was safe for visitors. The entire team was amazed. Dr. Alan Grant and Dr. Ellie Sattler were the most awestruck of the group because the Brachiosaurus was terrestrial, not semi-aquatic swamp dwellers they had thought they were.[3]

File:Myfriendbrachiosaur4.jpg

When Dennis Nedry disabled Jurassic Park's security systems, the security fences that kept the prehistoric animals from escaping their enclosures were disabled as well, Brachiosaurus was one of the dinosaurs that were able to roam freely.[3]

After fleeing from the Tyrannosaur Paddock, Dr. Alan Grant and Tim and Lex Murphy climbed a tree where saw a herd of Brachiosaurs feeding on the nearby trees, hooting in the distance. Dr. Alan Grant heard their calls and attempted to imitate them to successful results. The following morning, a Brachiosaurus sick with a cold or a similar disease fed on the tree that the three humans were sleeping in, waking them up. Lex panicked at the sight of the dinosaur, believing it to be dangerous at first, but she soon calmed down when Dr. Alan Grant and her brother showed her that it was harmless. Dr. Grant fed the Brachiosaur a nearby branch that was on the tree and Tim Murphy even pet it. However, when Lex attempted to pet the dinosaur like her brother did, the Brachiosaur responded by sneezing on her. The humans and the Brachiosaurus later went their separate ways.[3]

It is unknown what happened to the Brachiosaur populations on Isla Nublar after the Isla Nublar Incident of 1993.

Wild on Isla Sorna

Upon Hurricane Clarissa's arrival on Isla Sorna, the human workers evacuated the island. The Brachiosaurs under their care were either set free or they broke out of their cages. To counter the Lysine contingency, the wild Brachiosaurus ate plants rich in Lysine.[6]

Brachiosaurus was known to have taken residence in the northeast of the island where it was the largest herbivore known to that region. It coexisted with the fellow herbivores Ankylosaurus, Corythosaurus, Parasaurolophus, Stegosaurus, and Triceratops.[4]

Isla Sorna Incident (2001)

File:Jp3-Brachiosaurus.jpg

Passengers of the plane N622DC saw a herd of Brachiosaurus during their fly-over of Isla Sorna at the beginning of the Isla Sorna Incident of 2001.[4]

Another herd was seen by Dr. Alan Grant and the Kirby family at a river bank.[4]

Jurassic World

File:Treetopgazers.jpg

Brachiosaurus is one of the dinosaurs seen on the Holoscape inside the Innovation Center of the Jurassic World park. It is unknown whether any animals reside in the park. It was planned for the Treetop Gazers attraction though this still doesn't answer whether or not it was created, or if there were still living specimens, before the conception of the attraction.

Video games

Jurassic Park (NES)

In the NES video game Jurassic Park, Brachiosaurus can be seen swimming in the river in the game's second level.

Jurassic Park (SEGA Genesis)

In both the SEGA Genesis and Sega Game Gear versions of Jurassic Park, the games feature Brachiosaurus as aquatic despite this being an outdated theory.

Jurassic Park (arcade game)

In the Jurassic Park arcade game in Area 2.

The Lost World: Jurassic Park console game

A herd of brachiosaurs appear in the Compsognathus level in The Lost World: Jurassic Park on Playstation where the Compsognathus has to avoid the feet. Strangely, the Brachiosaurus have their heads down really low, although they may be keeping a low profile as there is a Carnotaurus near by.

Warpath: Jurassic Park

Brachiosaurus is heard in Warpath: Jurassic Park in the main menu and possibly in some other levels, but it is not physically seen in the game.

Jurassic Park: Trespasser

'Brachiosaurus is the first dinosaur to be encountered in Jurassic Park: Trespasser. Two brachiosaurs are seen near the end of "The Beach". Another Brachiosaur is seen after the cliff in the "Jungle Road".

The ground shocks if a Brachiosaur is walking nearby. The Brach won't take notice of the player, even if the player shoots at the creature. Template:-

Jurassic Park III: Park Builder

Brachiosaurus appears in Jurassic Park III: Park Builder as number 57 of the Herbivore Threes that can be created.

Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis

see Brachiosaurus/Operation Genesis

Ir appears in Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis as a five-star large herbivore. No carnivores attack it purposely, presumably because it's too big to attack. Brachiosaurus is significantly tall, reaching the treetops even on all fours. It is exponentially larger than its movie counterparts (giving the accurate height of a real Brachiosaurus), measuring about 80–82 ft and stand 23 ft at the hips. This Brachiosaur seemed to be a mix of the Jurassic Park III and Jurassic Park Brachiosaurus colors.

Jurassic Park: Builder

see Brachiosaurus/Builder

Brachiosaurus is one of the available dinosaurs in the IOS application, Jurassic Park: Builder.



LEGO Jurassic World

Brachiosaurus appears in the video game LEGO Jurassic World as one of the playable dinosaurs. Its special ability is rearing up on its hind legs and stomping on the ground, destroying any objects in its radius.[7]

|-|Toys= Only three Brachiosaurus toys were ever produced for Jurassic Park. The first was a Brachiosaurus hatchling with came with JP Series 1 Tim Murphy figure. The second appeared in the 2001 Jurassic Park III toyline which included a female Brachiosaurus toy, it appeared in Jurassic Park Dinosaurs toy line it comes with a mini stegosaurus toy.It also appeared in Jurassic Park Junior toy line.

Behind the scenes

Jurassic Park

Design

File:Brach female.jpg

Early in the development of the first film, Phil Tippett lobbied for the Apatosaurus from the novel to be replaced by Brachiosaurus or Ultrasaurus in the film adaptation because the aforementioned sauropods were bigger than Apatosaurus and Tippett felt that the sauropods he was lobbying for had a "much more interesting design" physiologically.[8] Ultimately, Brachiosaurus was the sauropod that was picked for the film, though Ultrasaurus would later appear in Jurassic Park: The Ride.

Mark "Crash" McCreery created concept art of the film's Brachiosaurus. Outside of a full profile of the dinosaur, McCreery also created concepts of the head, which were used in designing the animatronic head of the sauropod.

Because Stan Winston wanted the Brachiosaurus in Jurassic Park to appear docile, the animatronic for the dinosaur was given a 4-axis jaw that allowed its jaw to move from side to side reminiscent of a cow chewing cud.[9]

During the creation of the CGI model, director Steven Spielberg would frequently critique it.[10] Spielberg notably requested that the Brachiosaurus that appeared in its reveal scene be made larger than what Industrial Light and Magic intended it to be.[11] TyRuben Ellingson painted the digital maps used for the color of the Brachiosaurus in the film.[12]

Portrayal

Head animatronic

The Brachiosaur head was the largest puppet that Stan Winston Studios built for the film that did not use any hydraulics,[9] utilizing cable and radio controls.[13] Its facial movements consisted of the tongue, eyes, lips, neck, eyelids, nostrils, head, and jaws, the later puppeteered by Andy Schoneberg.[9][13] For broad movements of this animatronic a hydraulic crane was used.[13] This hydraulically powered crane was designed by Michael Lantieri and was also used for the insert Tyrannosaurus rex head.[14] Its sneeze was created from K-Y jelly, green and yellow food colorings, and a food thickener.[15]

The head was used for the "My Friend Brachiosaur Scene".

CGI

Brachiosaurus was the first CGI dinosaur to be created during post-production of Jurassic Park.[10] As a result of the brachiosaur's enlargement, the dinosaur towered over the branches when it reared up on its hind legs. To counteract this, the head and neck of the Brachiosaur's model were lowered so it could reach the branches that were below it.[11] The movements of the Brach were based on both the elephant and the giraffe. The giraffe was used for the sauropods long strides and grace while the elephant gave it the weight and mass as it moved.[16]

Vocalizations

Several animals were used in the creation of the sounds of the Brachiosaurus. These animals include swans, geese,[17] elephants, cows, and donkeys. The sounds of the donkeys were slowed down to create the "singing" sound the Brachiosaurs make.[18]

The Lost World: Jurassic Park and Jurassic Park III

The sauropod Mamenchisaurus filled the role of sauropod in The Lost World: Jurassic Park, though its model was a retrofitted model of the Brachiosaurus from Jurassic Park due to its similarities with Mamenchisaurus.[19] One of Stefan Dechant's digital storyboards for the second film featured a herd of Brachiosaurus.[20]

Brachiosaurus returned in Jurassic Park III with a new color scheme and as a totally CGI creature.

Jurassic World

In the Jurassic World storyboard, an attraction called "Brachiosaur Valley" was to be visited.[21] This idea seems to have been reworked into the planned Jurassic World attraction Treetop Gazers.

The Apatosaurus skull that was seen on JurassicWorld.com until it was removed does not belong to the dinosaur at all, rather it belongs to a Brachiosaurus. Its icon on JurassicWorld.com and the Holoscape is also of Brachiosaurus. Furthermore, Brachiosaurus vocalizations were also reused for Apatosaurus in the film as well.

Misc

The Ronto for the Star Wars: Episode IV: A New Hope 1997 Special Edition was created from a modified model of the Brachiosaurus from the first film. Industrial Light and Magic even referred to the Ronto as "Bronto" before it was named "Ronto", which was the name George Lucus gave to this alien creature that is simply its production nickname with the "b" dropped.[22]

Empire Magazine called the first encounter with the Brachiosaurus the 27th most magical moment in cinema.[citation needed]

Notes and references

  1. Comparison between a restoration of Giraffatitan, a restoration of the real Brachiosaurus, and the Jurassic Park Brachiosaurus. As one can see, the Brachiosaurus seen in the films has more in common with Giraffatitan than the real Brachiosaurus.
  2. Paul, Gregory (August-September 1997) Jurassic Park Boo Boos. Prehistoric Times, 25, p. 9. Retrieved from http://gspauldino.com/PTJurassicBooBoos.pdf
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 Jurassic Park
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Jurassic Park III
  5. In Jurassic Park III, Dr. Alan Grant spots the Alpha Male of a Brachiosaurus herd, which has green skin. Though it is still uncertain if green-skinned Brachiosaurus are the males of their species as all the Brachiosaurs that appeared in Jurassic Park III had green skin.
  6. 6.0 6.1 The Lost World: Jurassic Park
  7. Mike Taylor Interview. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vfCcY_1oejw
  8. Phil Tippett (2014). Phil Tippett Interview - 5th February 2014, JurassicWorld.org, feb 5, 2014.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 stanwinstonshcool.com - JURASSIC PARK'S Brachiosaurus - Animatronic Rehearsal (March 23, 2013) Retrieved from https://www.stanwinstonschool.com/blog/rehearsing-jurassic-park-brachiosaurus-puppet#
  10. 10.0 10.1 The Making of Jurassic Park
  11. 11.0 11.1 zbrushcentral.com - Interview: ILM on Jurassic World (February 3, 2016) Retrieved from http://www.zbrushcentral.com/showthread.php?198673-Interview-ILM-on-Jurassic-World
  12. Sosa, J.L. (2015, June 12) ‘I Was a Failed Gallimimus’: Jurassic Park Through The Eyes of One of Its Magic Creators. Retrieved http://filmschoolrejects.com/features/jurassic-park-tyruben-ellingson.php
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 The Making of Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, p. 99
  14. Duncan, Jody. (August 1993) Beauty in the Beasts. Cinefex, 55, p. 86.
  15. Ascher-Walash, Rebecca. (July 23, 1993) Jurassic Park science explained. Entertainment Weekly.
  16. The Making of Jurassic Park, pp. 134-135.
  17. YouTube - Jurassic Park (1993) - Gary Rydstrom Sound FX
  18. Sullivan, Becky. (April 13, 2013) Jurassic Bark: How Sound Design Changed Our Imaginations. NPR
  19. The Making of The Lost World: Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, pp. 58-59
  20. The Making of The Lost World: Jurassic Park by Don Shay and Jody Duncan, pp. 26-27
  21. davelowerystoryboards - Jurassic World (July 31, 2015) Retrieved from http://dlstoryboards.blogspot.com/2015/07/jurassic-world_31.html
  22. Starwars.com Databank - Ronto (August 10, 2001 archive) Archived from https://web.archive.org/web/20010810183954/http://www.starwars.com/databank/creature/ronto/bts.html

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